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The mythical Greek colony of Mainake existed for at least two centuries.

Interest in Greek texts and their availability was scarce in the Latin West during the earlier Middle Ages, but as traffic to the East increased so did Western scholarship.

Classical Greek philosophy consisted of various original works ranging from those from Ancient Greece (e.g.

On the contrary, the city of Maenaca is farther away from Calpe, and is now in ruins, though it still preserves traces of having been a Grecian city, whereas Malaca is nearer, and Phoenician in its configuration. The layout of ancient Malaka is unknown, but its location on a hill at the foot of Mount Gibralfaro suggests it was a more dense and irregular urban cluster than neighbouring Cerro del Villar, that is, Mainake.

Traces of ancient landings there, as of a port, correspond with the description in the Periplous.

The final decline and collapse of the Byzantine empire in the fifteenth century heightened contact between its scholars and those of the west. Guarino da Verona (1370–1460) translated Strabo and Plutarch.

Translation into Latin of the full range of Greek classics ensued, including the historians, poets, playwrights and non-Aristotelian philosophers. Poggio Bracciolini (1380–1459) translated Xenophon, Lucan and Diodorus.

Market rivalry had attracted the Greeks to Iberia, who established their own trading colonies along the northeastern coast before venturing into the Phoenician corridor.

They were encouraged by the Tartessians, who may have desired to end the Phoenician economic monopoly.

The Periplus, a merchants' guidebook which described the sea routes used by traders from Phoenicia and Tartessos, possibly dating to as early as the 6th century BC, contains the most ancient identification of Malaca as Mainake.

It gives an account of a sea voyage circa 525 BC from Massalia (Marseille) along the western Mediterranean coast.

There are several ancient documents that mention its existence and discuss its intensive commercial activity.

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