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Sexual violence undermines the ability to make free and safe choices regarding pregnancy, childbearing and contraception, and puts women at risk of HIV infection (Jenkins, 1993).The gender inequalities that underpin gender-based violence also affect sexual and gender minorities (Myrttinen, Naujoks and El-Bushra, 2014).Economic and emotional abuse are also commonly reported by women (Jewkes, Fulu and Sikweyiya, 2015; Lewis, Maruia and Walker, 2008).

High incidences of sexual violence and strong stigmatization of people living with HIV and AIDS suggest that many cases of HIV are undocumented.

Heterosexual transmission is the predominant means of infection.

High incidences of sexual violence and the under-representation of women in government contribute to PNG’s continued struggle with gender inequality.

In 2017, PNG ranks 158 out of 188 countries on the United Nations Development Program’s gender-related development index. The network member works in the areas of malaria, tuberculosis (TB), gender-based violence (GBV), women’s economic empowerment, and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH).

Stigmatization of illnesses and misconceptions about the causes of preventable diseases discourage many people from accessing health services or adopting healthier behaviors.

Gender-based violence is a pervasive social problem in PNG.

Condom Social Marketing PSI/PNG’s nationwide social marketing of female condoms works to improve condom accessibility throughout the country.

The program distributed more than 500,000 condoms in 2016, targeting migrant men in rural economic enclaves and key populations.

The midterm review of PNG’s National HIV and AIDS Strategy emphasizes that HIV services and interventions for key populations such as FSW and men who have sex with men (MSM) are vital. An estimated 70% of women in PNG experience domestic violence in their lifetime (Brouwer, Harris and Tanaka, 1998).

In 2014 to 2015, PSI developed and implemented the key populations behavior change communication strategy, In 2015, with funding from the Australian Government, PSI developed the National Aids Councils Faith Based Organization Sub-strategy: Building an Enabling Environment for Key Populations Accessing a User-Friendly Service. A 2013 study in Bougainville, PNG found that one in five women aged 18 to 49 reported that their first sexual experience was forced (Jewkes, Fulu and Sikweyiya, 2015).

In PNG, men and women who report minority sexual and gender identities, such as transgender women, face disproportionate levels of violence, often from law enforcement, health care providers and family members (FHI 360, 2013).

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