Dating antique hand bells bledel alexis dating

The use of iron bells in sub-Saharan African music and the Niger–Congo area is linked to the early iron-making technology spread during the Bantu migrations.

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Though the bells for shepherding were expanded from the fertile crescent to Celtic, Carthaginian, Greek and Roman cultures, in Europe the earliest written evidence of bells used for livestock dates to the late 14th to early 15th century. "Kuhschelle" points to a 1410 mention in a Frankfurt archive; the OED lists 1440 as the earliest attestation of a bell-wether, the leading sheep of a flock, on whose neck a bell is hung.

The OED also attributes the phrase "to bear the bell" in the sense "to take the first place" as originally referring to the leading cow or sheep of a drove or flock to Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde, 1374.

They are mainly used in Europe, Mediterranean areas and Latin America, but are also used worldwide by those who practice transhumance, including nomadic pastoral tribes in Africa and Asia.

Different bells can have specific sounds to identify important characteristics of the animals, such as age, sex, and species.

From 1780, ornamental Jasper, Black Basalt, cane, terra cotta and Queens Ware are always marked with this stamp.

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Dating Wedgwood can sometime be very difficult as apart from the Trademark there are also in some cases letters that accompany the marks to give a more accurate manufacture date and most old pieces have this second mark.

To better date a particular piece collectors will often also refer to this marking.

Plating causes the sheet metal to have a surface which can be decorated or left plain.

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