By elucidating backdating council tax benefit

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During the polluted period, the movement of the air mass is less than 50 km⋅d transport. 1 and 2 indicate that the aerosol nucleation and growth processes occur on the regional (several hundred kilometers) to urban (less than 100 km) scales, respectively, and local-scale phenomena, such as primary particle emissions by traffic, exert an insignificant impact on the particle mass growth.).

The shaded colors denote the mass concentrations of the aerosol constituents, i.e., green for organics, blue for nitrate, red for sulfate, yellow for ammonium, purple for chloride, and black for black carbon.).

levels in Beijing on the basis of measurements of ambient gases and aerosol properties. S1) may be affected by transport, local emissions, and chemistry, the evolutions of the particle size, mass, number concentration, chemical composition, and meteorological parameters (such as measured wind direction and speed and back-trajectories) were analyzed to decouple the various processes.

The measured PM) demonstrate the presence of a higher number concentration of smaller particles during the clean period but a slightly lower particle number concentration of larger particles during the polluted period. 1During our observation period, southerly winds were most prevalent (50%), followed by winds from the northwest (42%) and northeast (7%) (Fig. The wind was much weaker from the south but stronger from the northwest and northeast.

The formation mechanisms leading to severe haze episodes with exceedingly high PM in Beijing has been suggested to be mainly from industrial pollution and secondary inorganic aerosol formation, but negligibly from traffic emissions (14).

In addition, meteorological conditions may govern regional and long-range transport of air pollutants (17, 18).The stronger northwesterly and northeasterly winds were most frequent during the clean period, carrying unpolluted air masses from the less populated northern mountainous areas.Furthermore, precipitation typically occurred between the pollution episodes, and wet deposition was also responsible for removal of aerosols.We illustrate the similarity and difference in particulate matter (PM) formation between Beijing and other world regions.The periodic cycle of PM events in Beijing is regulated by meteorological conditions.Reductions in emissions of the aerosol precursor gases from transportation and industry are essential to mediate severe haze pollution in China.

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