dating customs in zimbabwe - Archeology excavation dating techniques

These tools reveal subsurface soil anomalies which often represent ancient features such as walls and trash middens.Techniques are now so sophisticated that if the buried structure is well preserved, a team might be able to create a reliable plan of the invisible feature.At Isthmia, where excavation has been conducted continuously for half a century, the complexity of work necessitates a high level of organization.

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Additionally, modern archaeologists seldom excavate sites to find what is there.

More often than not, the research questions and objectives guide the choice of what and where to excavate. How much money and other resources are available to the project? In planning an excavation project, many institutions formulate a research design, the overarching goals and plans of the project.

During the planning stage, it is important that the director decide what and where to excavate.

Excavation is tedious, time consuming, and expensive, and it is rarely feasible or possible to expose an entire site (Figure 8.4).

How then do archaeologists even locate sites given such a situation?

In the olden days of classical archaeology, explorers used ancient literary references to place names as guides in locating lost cities.

Because the state of vegetation depends on soil fertility, abnormal crop marks may suggest underground walls, ditches, and roads.

Slight nuances in shadow may point to elevation differences and ancient structures.

The directors provide an overarching plan and oversee all work but it would be impossible to carry out the demands of fieldwork without the help of project coordinators, team leaders, volunteers, and specialists.

A project as complicated as the Roman Bath at Isthmia, for example, requires people with technical skills in botany, geology, computers, cartography, as well as special knowledge of certain periods (e.g., Roman, Greek) and areas (e.g., architecture, pottery).

If an excavation phase follows, this will certainly help guide the placement of test trenches and excavation grid.

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