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Absolute dating can be achieved through the use of historical records and through the analysis of biological and geological patterns resulting from annual climatic variations, such as tree rings (dendrochronology) and varve analysis.
Since 1950 the physical sciences contributed a number of absolute dating techniques that have had a revolutionary effect on archaeology and geology.
The radioactive carbon-14 method of dating is used to determine the age of organic matter that is several hundred years to approximately 50,000 years old.
Carbon dating is possible because all organic matter, including bones and other hard parts, contains carbon and thus contains a scalable proportion of carbon-14 to its decay product, nitrogen-14.
The varved-clay method is applied with fair accuracy on deposits up to 12,000 years old.
Streams flowing into still bodies commonly deposit layers (varves) of summer silt and winter clay through the year.
By counting each pair of varves the age of the deposit can be determined.
The absolute dating methods most widely used and accepted are based on the natural radioactivity of certain minerals found in rocks.
Furthermore, Egyptian trade wares were used as a basis for establishing the age of the relative chronologies developed for adjoining regions, such as Palestine and Greece.
Thus, Sir Arthur Evans was able to establish an accurate absolute chronology for the ancient civilizations of Crete and Greece through the use of Egyptian trade objects that appeared in his excavations—a technique known as cross-dating.
Because rainfall patterns vary annually, any given set of tree ring patterns in a region will form a relatively distinct pattern, identifiable with a particular set of years.
By comparing the pattern of tree rings in trees whose lifespans partially overlap, these patterns can be extended back in time.
Thus it is possible to measure the time that has elapsed since the material solidified.Tags: Adult Dating, affair dating, sex dating